Vol. 5, Issue 3, Part B (2017)
Estimation of tannins, alkaloids, saponins and proximate composition of Vernonia amygdalina (Del) root
Author(s): Rachel Nimenibo-Uadia, Ifeanyi Ugwu, Theophilus Erameh and Eghosasere Osunde
Abstract: Quantitative chemical compositions of Vernonia amygdalina Del. root were assessed by determining phytochemical and proximate compositions using standard procedures. Phytochemical analysis showed levels of total tannins in root (33.90 ± 0.06 mg %) were less than those in the leaf (69.33 ± 0.67 mg %) and stem (50.70 ± 0.37 mg %); total alkaloids in the leaf was 4.407 ± 0.079 g%, root (1.951 ± 0.037 g%) and stem (1.505 ± 0.045 g%); saponin content in the leaf was highest at 7.92 ± 0.46 g%, the level in the root was 4.00 ± 0.50 g% while the stem recorded the least value of 0.85 ± 0.20 g%. Proximate composition revealed high contents of crude fibre (22.50 ± 1.44) and total ash (13.50 ± 0.87); crude protein content was 2.42 ± 0.23, crude fat (1.95 ± 0.05) in g% dry weight. Moisture content was 81.08 ± 0.72 g% wet weight. Considering the adverse effects of high tannins, alkaloids and saponins, Vernonia amygdalina root may be a better alternative to the leaf in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and the high fibre content in the root may play a role in decreasing blood cholesterol and glucose uptake.
How to cite this article:
Rachel Nimenibo-Uadia, Ifeanyi Ugwu, Theophilus Erameh and Eghosasere Osunde. Estimation of tannins, alkaloids, saponins and proximate composition of Vernonia amygdalina (Del) root. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2017; 5(3): 88-92.