Vol. 7, Issue 4, Part A (2019)
Chemical composition, anthelmintic, insecticidal and antimicrobial activities of Vernonia colorata leaf essential oil
Author(s): Frank NI Morah, Amos F Ogar, Eni I Eyong, Helen A Nathaniel and Marshal A Isong
Abstract: Vernonia colorata is commonly employed in herbal medicine. The present study is therefore aimed at determination of the chemical composition, anthelmintic, insecticidal larvicidal and antimicrobial activities of its leaf essential oil. Fresh leaves of Vernonia colorata were ground and steam distilled to get the essential oil. The individual constituents of the essential oil were separated by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out using agar disc diffusion method while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined through the dilution method. 100, 50 and 25mgcm-3 solutions of the essential oil were used for the determination of anthelmintic activity against Lumbricus terrestris. Ten adult Anopheles mosquitoes were kept in beakers containing different levels of the essential oil. The mosquitoes were observed for sixteen hours and the number of death recorded. From this the percentage mortality was calculated. In a similar way, the larvicidal activity of the essential oil was determined. A total of twenty four organic compounds were identified in the essential oil and these are being identified for the first time in Vernonia colorata leaf. The oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Rhizopus nigricans, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureas, Pseudonomas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. It exhibited anthelmintic activity against Lumbricus terrestris. The oil also exhibited strong insecticidal and larvicidal activity against Anopheles mosquito. The oil exhibited strong antimicrobial, insecticidal, anthelmintic activities. Twenty four compounds have been identified for the first time in Vernonia colorata leaf essential oil. With the observed antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity, the oil will serve as an alternative source of vermicide and new antimicrobial drugs. The oil will also assist in control of malaria through control of the mosquito vector.
How to cite this article:
Frank NI Morah, Amos F Ogar, Eni I Eyong, Helen A Nathaniel and Marshal A Isong. Chemical composition, anthelmintic, insecticidal and antimicrobial activities of Vernonia colorata leaf essential oil. International Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2019; 7(4): 45-50.