Vol. 8, Issue 5, Part A (2020)
Role of probiotics in prevention and control of viral infection
Author(s): Mahima Arora, Santosh Kumar Karn, RK Singh and AK Sharma
Abstract: Probiotics are living microorganisms which administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on a host. The risk of viral infection in humans increased exponentially. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious disease is limited by the high mutation rate of virus, especially RNA viruses. The most common type of microbes used as probiotics are Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, which are generally consumed as a part of fermented foods, such as yoghurt or dietary supplements. One of the major mechanisms of probiotic action is through the regulation of host immune response. Probiotics contain immunostimulatory substances such as lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan and nucleic acid, which are toll-like receptor ligands, and muramyl dipeptide, which is a nod-like receptor ligand. Different experiments provide insight on the clinical effects of probiotics against respiratory virus infections. Commonly the retro viruses interact with the respiratory epithelium, which generates an innate immune response by activating the IFN signaling and other proinflammatory cytokines. Once cytokines have been secreted, macrophages and NK cells will be recruited to phagocytize and kill both viruses and viral-infected cells. To trigger a specific immune response, the immune system needs proinflammatory cytokines, energy, and some cofactor elements. Hence, probiotics can provide some elements to boost the immune response. There is another variety of mechanism to boost immune response and therefore these are also called immuno biotics. In this communication, we highlight the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of virally induced infectious diseases and the unique mechanism by which viruses are eliminated. Different methods and strategies such as vaccines, antibiotics, therapies, etc. have been performed for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases but infection control has not yet been achieved at a sufficient level for diseases like Ebola haemorrhagic fever, severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus, avian influenza, Zika virus, etc. As the increased geographical movement of humans and export and import of goods increased, the numbers of pathogenic virus species and affected area have increased. Therefore, the risk of viral infection has now become a critical issue. Most recently, scientists identified a new corona outbreak in Wuhan, China that has now reached all over the world. The virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause COVID-19. Corona virus undergoes a process of discontinuous mutation as a result development of vaccine becomes difficult and the disease becomes pandemics. Corona virus typically affects the respiratory tracts of birds and mammals including humans. Doctors associate them with common cold, bronchitis, pneumonia, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the current studies, special emphasis is given on the viral infection and outlining the possible application of several probiotics against viral infectious disease and to explain the immune defence mechanism against viral infection that is induced by probiotics.
How to cite this article:
Mahima Arora, Santosh Kumar Karn, RK Singh, AK Sharma. Role of probiotics in prevention and control of viral infection. Int J Herb Med 2020;8(5):42-47.